Rauwendaal, Chris 
Polymer Mixing:
A Self-Study Guide
Hanser Publishers
1998
255 pages
265 references
Hardbound
ISBN 1-56990-223-2

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Review (Corneliussen, Roger D.)
Review (Simon, George P.)

Author:
Dr. Rauwendaal is a consultant on
extrusion technology and melt rheology.

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Review (Simon, George P.)

Those familiar with Society of Plastic Engineer 
conferences and the like with their attendant 
courses will have been exposed to Chris Rauwendaal, 
a polymer engineer who has made his livelihood 
at last in part by teaching and researching about 
polymer processing – in particular extruding and mixing.  
He has published a number of important books 
in this area, valuable in the understanding 
they give and their potential as educational tools.  
This book is no exception.  “Polymer Mixing – 
A Self Study Guide” is just that – a book that is 
immensely readable and thus (almost) able to be 
(skim) read from cover-to cover.  The self study 
aspect also valid because the book contains 
questions (and some answers) provided at the end 
of each chapter for self learning. 

The book is sequential in its build up of the
 important concepts from evaluation of mixture 
to types of mixing (distributive/dispersive) 
to the devices and technology of mixing (single 
and twin screw extruders, internal/external 
and batch mixers).  Of much value I find was 
the clear and succinct introductions of terms 
relating to mixing and blends that generally get 
used in any relevant literature or discussion.  
What is impressive is the academic footing on 
which Rauwendaal puts blending and the 
techniques to do this. Clearly much of the 
information is in the breadth of the literature 
(some 265 references, only about 3% the authors’ 
own) and he draws them well together whilst 
providing a chance for people to seek the 
original references if necessary.

One aspect that was particularly pleasing is 
the appropriate emphasis given to solids 
mixing, the first step of any meet blend process.  
The type of information listed here is certainly 
not found often enough in the polymer literature 
and I found it most useful.  The book is not 
afraid to use equations where appropriate and 
this aids understanding and supports the idea 
that blending is a scientific process that can 
be controlled and understood, and thus modeled.

The sections on blending devices is also 
quite rigorous in its explanation of different
 features and designs of devices but resists the 
temptation to simply show large pieces of equipment 
for the sake of it.  There too equations are developed 
or presented (some included in the very 
useful Appendix 1).  The book resists the 
temptation to give lots of ad-hoc practical advice, 
but rather this arises from understanding.  As stated 
on the cover, the consistency and completeness 
of a single authored book proves very advantageous, 
compared to their multi-authored counterparts

George P. Simon

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Review (Corneliussen, Roger D.):

This book covers the fundamental aspects
of polymer mixing as well as modern
mixing equipment.  The different mixing processes
are described with a quantitative description.
Sections are very mathematical although much
can be gleaned without going through the
mathematics.  Of special importance
is a thorough discussion of single and twin screw
extruders along with their mixing processes.
Also included are internal mixers, external mixers
and static mixing devices.

The book is touted as a self-study guide because
it contains a mixture of multiple choice and true /false
questions at the end of many sections.  At the
end of the book the questions are given with 
their answers and in some cases, explanations.

As a teacher I hated such questions and rarely
used them.  I almost always required explanations
and so on.  However, I like these questions.  They
were a great way to review a section.  Going 
through them really helped to bring out the points
leaving me with a feeling of having learned something.

I enthusiastically support adding such questions 
and  hope they become a standard part of technical 
books.  Such questions wouldn't be
be bad for technical articles either.  

This book has dramatically changed my opinion
about multiple choice questions. One reason for
this change is that reading a book is 
not the same as a classroom situation.  
In the absence of a teacher, these questions 
are a great way to review.  They work and 
work very well.

There is a lot of mathematics in this book. 
The review questions do not help very much 
with the mathematics. However, there is a lot
of good stuff besides the mathematics.

In conclusion, I think this is a great book. 
Anyone working with mixing should have this
book on their book shelf and should have 
answered, every review question.  

Roger D. Corneliussen

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Contents
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Part I Basic Principles of Mixing
1 Introduction
2 Evaluation of Mixtures
3 Distributive Mixing
4 Dispersive Mixing
Part II Mixing Machinery
5 Single Screw Extruders
6. Twin Screw Extruders
7. Internal and External Extruders
8. Static Mixing Devices
Abbreviations
Appendix 1

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Part 1: Basic Principles of Mixing

1 Introduction
1.1 Main Types of Mixing
1.2 Distributive and Dispersive Mixing
1.3 Compounds, Blends and Alloys
1.4 Basic Mixing Mechanisms
    1.4.1 Diffusion
    1.4.2 Turbulence
    1.4.3 Convective Motion
1.5 Classification of Mixers
1.6 Organization of Book
1.7 Questions

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2 Evaluation of Mixtures
2.1 Intensity of Segregation
2.2 Texture and Scale of Segregation
2.3 Complete Description of Texture
2.4 Measurement Techniques
    2.4.1 Measurements of Sections
    2.4.2 Sample Variance Measurements
    2.4.3 Image Analysis
        2.4.3.1 Obtaining Digital Images
        2.4.3.2 Analyzing the Image
2.5 Level of Mixing Required
2.6 Questions

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3 Distributive Mixing
3.1 Solid-Solid Mixing
    3.1.1 Bulk Characteristics of Particulates
    3.1.2 Types of Mixtures
        3.1.2.1 Random Mixtures
    3.1.3 Segregation of Particulate Materials
        3.1.3.1 Mechanisms of Segregation
        3.1.3.2 Reduction of Segregation
        3.1.3.3 Mixing Mechanisms of Particulates
    3.1.4 Distributive Mixers for Particulate Solids
        3.1.4.1 Tumble Blenders
        3.1.4.2 Convective Mixers
        3.1.4.3 Fluidized Bed Mixers
        3.1.4.4 Comparison of Distributive Solids Mixers
3.2 Liquid-Liquid Mixing
    3.2.1 Simple Laminar Mixing Theory
        3.2.1.1 Effect of Reorientation
    3.2.2 Kinematics of Distributive Mixing
    3.2.3 Efficient Distributive Mixing
    3.2.4 Questions: Liquid-Liquid Distributive Mixing

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4 Dispersive Mixing
4.1 Solid-Solid Mixing
    4.1.1 Strength of Cohesive Clusters
        4.1.1.1 Electrostatic Forces
        4.1.1.2 Van der Waals Forces
        4.1.1.3 Moisture Induced Forces
    4.1.2 Dispersive Solids Mixers
        4.1.2.1 Centrifugal Impact Mixers
        4.1.2.2 High-Intensity Mixers
        4.1.2.3 Thermokinetic Mixers
    4.1.3 Size-Reduction Machinery
        4.1.3.1 Crusher and Roll Mills
        4.1.3.2 Mechanical Impact Mills
        4.1.3.3 Jet Mills
        4.1.3.4 Mechanical Classifier Mills
        4.1.3.5 Ball Mills and Rod Mills
    4.1.4 Questions: Solid-Solid Dispersive Mixing
4.2 Solid-Liquid Mixing
    4.2.1 Pretreatment of Solids
    4.2.2 Wetting
        4.2.2.1 Surface Tension, Interfacial 
        Tension and Contact Angle
    4.2.3 Size Reduction
        4.2.3.1 Cohesionless Clusters
        4.2.3.2 Cohesive Clusters
        4.2.3.3 Hydrodynamic Forces
        4.2.3.4 Models for Agglomerate Dispersion    
    4.2.4 Flocculation
        4.2.4.1 Steric Stabilization|
    4.2.5 Questions: Solid-Liquid Dispersive Mixing
4.3 Liquid-Liquid Mixing
    4.3.1 Introduction
    4.3.2 Mixing in Miscible Systems
    4.3.3 Mixing in Immiscible Systems
        4.3.3.1 Breakup Under Quiescent Conditions
        4.3.3.2 Breakup in Flow
        4.3.3.3 Coalescence
            4.3.3.3.1 Collision of Drops
            4.3.3.3.2 Film Drainage
        4.3.3.4 Models for Dispersive Mixing of
        Immiscible Fluids
    4.3.4 Summary
    4.3.5 Questions: Liquid-Liquid Dispersive Mixing

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Part II Mixing Machinery
5. Single Screw Extruders
    5.1 Regular Single Screw Extruders
        5.1.1 Solids Conveying
        5.1.2 Melting
        5.1.3 Melt Conveying
        5.1.4 Degassing
        5.1.5 Mixing
            5.1.5.1 Distributive Mixing
            5.1.5.2 Melt Temperatures in Extruders
                5.1.5.2.1 Thermal Conductivity
                5.1.5.2.2 Melt Temperature Measurment
                5.1.5.2.3 Finite Element Analysis    
            5.1.5.3 Mixing Sections
            5.1.5.4 Distributive Mixing Sections
                5.1.5.4.1 Cavity Mixers
                5.1.5.4.2 Pin Mixers
                5.1.5.4.3 Slotted Flight Mixers
                5.1.5.4.4 Variable Depth Mixers
                5.1.5.4.5 Summary of Distributive Mixers
            5.1.5.5 Dispersive Mixing Sections
                5.1.5.5.1 Blister Rings
                5.1.5.5.2 Fluted Mixing Sections
                5.1.5.5.3 Planetary Gear Mixers
                5.1.5.5.4 Summary of Dispersive Mixers
5.2 Reciprocating Screw Single Screw Mixer (Kneader)
    5.2.1 Background
    5.2.2 Principle of Operation
    5.2.3 Mixing Mechanism in the Kneader
    5.2.4 Modeling of Kneader
    5.2.5 Machinery and Applications
5.3 Stepped Diameter Single Screw Mixers (KEX)
5.4 Questions   

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6. Twin Screw Extruders
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
    6.2.1 Main Geometries for Co-Rotating
    Extruders
    6.2.2 Characteristics and Applications
    of Co-Rotating Extruders
6.3 Counter-Rotating Extruders
    6.3.1 Main Geometries for Counter-Rotating
    Extruders
        6.3.1.1 Low-Speed Counter-Rotating 
        Extruders
        6.3.1.2 High-Speed Counter-Rotating
        Extruders
    6.3.2 Characteristics and Applications 
    of Counter-Rotating Extruders
6.4 Nonintermeshing Twin Screw Extruders
    6.4.1 Main Geometries of Nonintermeshing
    Extruders
    6.4.2 Characteristics and Applications of
    Nonintermeshing Extruders
6.5 Overview of Extruder Types and 
Manufacturers
6.6 Conclusions
6.7 Questions

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7. Internal and External Mixers
7.1 External Mixers
    7.1.1 Modeling of External Mixers
7.2 Internal Mixers
    7.2.1 Basic Geometry and Characteristics
    of Internal Batch Mixers
        7.2.1.1 Order of Addition of Ingredients
    7.2.2 Rotor Design
    7.2.3 Degree of Fill and Rotor Speed
    7.2.4 Flow Visualization
    7.2.5 Simulation
7.3 Continuous Internal Mixers
    7.3.1 Continuous Mixers Versus Twin Screw
    Extruders
    7.3.2 Rotor Designs    
        7.3.2.1 Flow Mechanism and Modeling
7.4 Questions

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8. Static Mixing Devices
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Geometry
8.3 Functional Performance Characteristics
    8.3.1 Mixing
    8.3.2 Pressure Drop
    8.3.3 Residence Time Distribution
    8.3.4 Thermal Homogenization
8.4 Mixing Materials with Different Viscosities
8.5 Miscellaneous Considerations
8.6 Questions

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Abbreviations
    Acronyms
    Nomenclature

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Appendixes
Appendix 1: Screw Design for Twin Screw Extruders
    Kinematics of Co-Rotating Extruders
    Screw Design for Co-Rotating Extruders
    Screw Design Issues in Co-Rotating Extruders
    Co-Rotating Screw Geometries for Specific Applications
    Computer-Aided Screw Design and Analysis
    Kinematics of Counter-Rotating Extruders
    Counter-Rotating Twin Screws for Profile Extrusion
    Counter-Rotating Screw Design for Compounding
    Conclusions

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Appendix 2: Question and Answer Review
    1 Introduction
    2 Evaluation of Mixtures
    3 Distributive Mixing
        Solid-Solid Mixing
        Liquid-Liquid Mixing
    4 Dispersive Mixing
        Solid-Solid Mixing
        Solid-Liquid Mixing
        Liquid-Liquid Mixing
    5 Single Screw Extruders
    6 Twin Screw Extruders
    7 Internal Mixers
    8 Static Mixing Devices

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References
Index

****************************

For more information about Dr. Rauwendaal,
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Rauwendaal Notes
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Rauwendaal
or go to Dr. Rauwendaal's website:
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Rauwendaal 1998 SPE
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http://www.4spe.org/BOOKSTORE/BOOKSTORE_9824.HTML

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