From 06/25/2014 through 6/18/2012
Patents with Abstracts
“Ultrasonics is a term meaning the application of ultrasound. It is often used in industry as a shorthand term for any equipment employing ultrasonic principles.
Ultrasonics is also a trade term coined by the Ultrasonic Manufacturers Association and used by its successor, the Ultrasonic Industry Association, to refer to the use of high-intensity acoustic energy to change materials [reference required and evidence of earliest usage of this term]. This usage is contrasted to ultrasound, which is generally reserved for imaging, as in sonar, materials examination (NDI), and diagnostics (mammography, duplex ultrasonography, etc.). The term "ultrasonic" is, however, common to both fields, for example
Ultrasonic Flaw Detection for Technicians, 3rd ed., 2004 by J. C. Drury
Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation : engineering and biological material characterization, Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, c2004, by Tribikram Kundu
Ultrasonication offers great potential in the processing of liquids and slurries, by improving the mixing and chemical reactions in various applications and industries. Ultrasonication generates alternating low-pressure and high-pressure waves in liquids, leading to the formation and violent collapse of small vacuum bubbles. This phenomenon is termed cavitation and causes high speed impinging liquid jets and strong hydrodynamic shear-forces. These effects are used for the deagglomeration and milling of micrometre and nanometre-size materials as well as for the disintegration of cells or the mixing of reactants. In this aspect, ultrasonication is an alternative to high-speed mixers and agitator bead mills. Ultrasonic foils under the moving wire in a paper machine will use the shock waves from the imploding bubbles to distribute the cellulose fibres more uniform in the produced paper web, which will make a stronger paper with more even surfaces. Furthermore, chemical reactions benefit from the free radicals created by the cavitation as well as from the energy input and the material transfer through boundary layers. For many processes, this sonochemical (see sonochemistry) effect leads to a substantial reduction in the reaction time, like in the transesterification of oil into biodiesel. Ultrasonication can easily be tested in lab scale for its effect on various liquid formulations. Equipment manufacturers have developed a number of larger ultrasonic processors of up to 16 kW power. Therefore volumes from 1mL up to several hundred gallons per minute can be sonicated today in order to achieve all kinds of results from the link that is shown below.
Ultrasonic technology was for over 40 years employed in the steel industry, initially with flaw detection and later joined by wall thickness measurement.
For the past 15 years the plastics industry has used ultrasonic testing in the field of wall thickness measurement of pipe extrusions.
Quality considerations and material savings serve as arguments for investment in and protection against the increasingly important aspect of product liability. Also, Automation increasingly is being used in order to facilitate the use of data to recalculate the production costs of individual products and optimize the entire plant from this.
In the last few years, considerable efforts were made to utilize ultrasonic wall thickness measuring systems in the pipe extrusion. This ultimately was demonstrated by a multitude of key patents.”
(Wikipedia, Ultrasonics, 6/18/2012)
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Roger D. Corneliussen
Maro Polymer Links
Tel: 610 363 9920
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Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
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* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 6/18/2012.