Spinning is the formation of fibers. Usually, a melt or solution is forced through a die to form the fiber, which may be further modified by cooling, drying, and drawing. There are four basic types of spinning: wet, dry, melt, and gel spinning.
• Wet spinning--- polymer solutions are spun into fibers, which are immersed in a bath, causing precipitation or coagulation and solidification. Examples are acrylic, rayon, aramid, modacrylic, and spandex fibers.
• Dry spinning--- polymer solutions are spun into fibers and dried by a stream of inert gas or air. The lack of a precipitating liquid simplifies the process. Examples are acetate, triacetate, acrylic, modacrylic, polybenzimidazole, spandex, and vinyon fibers.
• Melt spinning (spunmelt process)--- resins are melted, spun into fibers, and solidified by cooling. Examples include nylon, polyolefin, polyester, Saran (Dow), and sulfur resins. These processes include melt blowing and spunbond processes.
• Gel spinning (dry-wet spinning)--- gelled resins are spun into fibers. In the gelstate, the fibers are partially bonded together, resulting in increased orientation, and hence higher strength, than that which results from the other spinning processes. Examples are polyethylene and aramid fibers.
Secondary processes: After spinning, the fibers may be further treated to improve properties, especially stiffness and strength. Secondary processes include cooling, annealing, drying, and, most important, drawing.
Drawing is stretching the solid fiber. This increases orientation and further induces crystallization or reforming of crystals in the oriented state. This oriented crystallization is important for stability. The oriented crystals are stable, while the oriented amorphous chains are unstable.
(Wikipedia, Spinning, 7/24/2
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Roger D. Corneliussen
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