From 09/16/2014 to 4/25/2012
1. “Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
There are some ISO standards relating to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice.
Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.
In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used foamed polystyrene into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items). Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy.”
(Wikipedia, Recycling, 4/25/2012)
During high speed manufacturing of disposable
absorbent articles, such as diapers, defective products are discarded in
landfills losing the costly absorbent particles. These superabsorbent particles
typically are more than 90% of the absorbent cores. Michnacs, Luckert, and
Zetzl recovered the absorbent particles by mixing the rejects with a
thermoplastic melt such as styrene butadiene block copolymers, solidifying and
extracting the thermoplastics, additives and contaminates with a supercritical
carbon dioxide or propane leaving behind active, crosslinked superabsorbent
US Patent 8,766,032 (July 1, 2014), “Recycled Superabsorbent Polymer Particles,” Marion Michnacs. Carsten Luckert, and Carsten Zetzl (The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA).
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These pages list the links as they are found. Some will abstracted and added to Maro Topics. (RDC 2/7/2012)
Roger D. Corneliussen
Maro Polymer Links
Tel: 610 363 9920
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Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
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* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 4/25/2012.