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Membrane Separations

Notes

From 05/12/2014 to 4/18/2012

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Dialysis

Gas Separations

Hollow Fiber Separations

Membrane Applications

Membranes

Reverse Osmosis

Ultrafiltration

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Notes

“Membrane separation technology covers all process engineering measures for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes. That means in general mechanical separation process for separation of gaseous or liquid streams using membrane technology.

The particular advantage of membrane separation processes is that it operate without heating and thus are energetically usually lower than conventional thermal separation processes (distillation, Sublimation or crystallization). This separation process is purely physical and, thanks to its gentle separation, the use of both fractions (permeate and retentate) is possible. Therefore, the cold separation by membrane processes has been established particularly in the food technology, the biotechnology and pharmacy industrie. Furthermore, with the help of membrane separations realizeable that with thermal processes are not possible. For example, because azeotropics or isomorphics crystallization making a separation by distillation or recrystallization impossible. Depending on the type of membrane, the selective separation of certain individual substances or substance mixtures is possible. Important technical applications include drinking water by reverse osmosis (worldwide approximately 7 million cubic meters annually), filtrations in the food industry, the recovery of organic vapors such as gasoline vapor recovery and the electrolysis for chlorine production. But also in wastewater treatment, the membrane technology is becoming increasingly important. With the help of UF and MF (Ultra-/Mikrofiltration) it is possible to remove particles, colloids and macromolecules, so that wastewater can be disinfected in this way. This is needed if wastewater is discharged into sensitive outfalls, or in swimming lakes.

About half of the market has applications in medicine. As an artificial kidney to remove toxic substances by hemodialysis and as artificial lung for bubble-free supply of oxygen in the blood. Also the importance of membrane technology is growing in the field of environmental protection (NanoMemPro IPPC Database). Even in modern energy recovery techniques membranes are increasingly used, for example in the fuel cell or the osmotic power plant.”

Microfiltration

Ultrafiltration

Nanofiltration

Reverse Osmosis

Gas Separation

Pervaporation)

 (Wikipedia, Membrane Separations, 4/18/2012)

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Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
No part of this transmission is to be duplicated in any manner or forwarded by electronic mail without the express written permission of Roger D. Corneliussen
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* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 4/18/2012.

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