Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
From 2/16/2013 through 6/5/2012
1. “A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
When a light-emitting diode is forward-biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, live video, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.”
(Wikipedia, Light Emitting Diodes (LED), 6/26/2012)
2. “High power LEDs are the conventional choice for general solid state lighting applications. Such high power white LEDs are extremely bright and can have luminous efficacies between 100 and 200 lumens/watt. The input power of a single high-power LED is typically greater than 0.5 watt and may be greater than 10 watts. Such LEDs generate considerable heat since they are only about 1 mm.sup.2 in area, so the required packaging is fairly complex and expensive. Although a bare high-power LED chip typically costs well under $1.00 (e.g., $0.10), the packaged LED typically costs around $1.50-$3.00. This makes a high output (e.g., 3000+lumens) solid state luminaire relatively expensive and not a commercially feasible alternative for a fluorescent light fixture, commonly used for general illumination. Further, the optics required to convert the high brightness point sources into a substantially homogeneous, broad angle .alpha.mission for an office environment (where glare control is important) is extremely challenging.
To greatly reduce the cost of a large area, high lumen output light source, it is known to sandwich an array of bare LED dice between a reflective bottom sheet having conductors and a top transparent sheet having conductors. The LEDs have top and bottom electrodes that contact a set of conductors. When the conductors on the sheets are energized, the LEDs emit light through only the transparent sheet. The light sheet may be flexible.”
[Dau, Lerman and York, US Patent 8,192,051 (6/5/2012)]
3. A Light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode based light source. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. When used as a light source, the LED presents many advantages over incandescent light sources. These advantages include lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. [Hornig, Lu and Liu, US Patent 8,193,015 (6/5/2012)]
4. “Electrically conducting polymers have been used in a variety of organic electronic devices, including in the development of electroluminescent (EL) devices for use in light emissive displays. With respect to EL devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing conducting polymers, such devices generally have the following configuration: anode/hole injection layer/EL layer/cathode
The anode is typically any material that has the ability to inject holes into the otherwise filled .pi.-band of the semiconducting material used in the EL layer, such as, for example, indium/tin oxide (ITO). The anode is optionally supported on a glass or plastic substrate. The EL layer is typically semiconducting, conjugated organic material, including a conjugated semiconducting polymer such as poly(paraphenylenevinylene), polyfluorene, spiropolyfluorene or other EL polymer material, a small molecule fluorescent dye such as 8-hydroxquinoline aluminum (Alq.sub.3), a small molecule phosphorescent dye such as fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (III) (doped in a host matrix), a dendrimer, a conjugated polymer grafted with phosphorescent dye, a blend that contains the above-mentioned materials, and combinations. The EL layer can also be inorganic quantum dots or blends of semiconducting organic material with inorganic quantum dots. The cathode is typically any material (such as, e.g., Ca or Ba) that has the ability to inject electrons into the otherwise empty .pi.*-band of the semiconducting organic material in the EL layer.
\The hole injection layer (HIL) is typically a conducting polymer and facilitates the injection of holes from the anode into the semiconducting organic material in the EL layer. The hole injection layer can also be called a hole transport layer, hole injection/transport layer, or anode buffer layer, or may be characterized as part of a bilayer anode. Typical conducting polymers employed as hole injection layer include polyaniline and polydioxythiophenes such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). These materials can be prepared by polymerizing aniline or dioxythiophene monomers in aqueous solution in the presence of a water soluble polymeric acid, such as poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA), as described in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,300,575 entitled "Polythiophene dispersions, their production and their use"; hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. A well known PEDOT/PSSA material is Baytron.RTM.-P, commercially available from H. C. Starck, GmbH (Leverkusen, Germany).
Electrically conducting polymers have also been used in photovoltaic devices, which convert radiation energy into electrical energy. Such devices generally have the following configuration: positive electrode/hole extraction layer/light harvesting layer(s)/negative electrode
The positive electrode and negative electrode can be selected from materials used for the anode and cathode of EL devices mentioned above. The hole extraction layer is typically a conducting polymer that facilitates the extraction of holes from the light harvesting layers for collection at the positive electrode. The light harvesting layer or layers typically consists of organic or inorganic semiconductors that can absorb light radiation and generate separated charges at an interface.”
[Light Emitting Diodes, US Patent 8,470,205 (6/25/2013)]
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Roger D. Corneliussen
Maro Polymer Links
Tel: 610 363 9920
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Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
No part of this transmission is to be duplicated in any manner or forwarded by electronic mail without the express written permission of Roger D. Corneliussen
* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 6/5/2012.