Maro Publications



From 05/23/2014 through 2/13/2013

Maro Encyclopedia


Patent Abstracts

Patent Titles


Cellulose Applications

Cellulose Esters

Cellulose Ethers

Cellulose Fibers

Cellulose Materials

Cellulose Paper



Renewable Materials



1. “Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 45%).

For industrial use, cellulose today is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton. Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper; to a smaller extent it is converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Converting cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source.

Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts. Humans can digest cellulose to some extent,  however it mainly acts as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and is often referred to as "dietary fiber".

(Cellulose, Wikipedia, 2/13/2013)


2. Cellulose as a structural material is extremely strong with a theoretical modulus of around 250 GPa or a specific tensile strength of about 5200 kN-m/kg or about 18 times that of titanium. However, most cellulose is naturally present in plant lignocellulosic biomass as a biocomposite made of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, etc., with a hierarchical structure.  Advanced separation techniques are required to effectively liberate cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass in the forms of nano-crystals and nanofibrils made of elemental crystals or elemental fibrils, respectively. These cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) or nanofibrils (CNF) have very special mechanical and optical properties and have been identified as a powerful building block for producing high-quality, durable, light weight, and cost-effective products for a variety of applications. 

Zhu and Reiner of the US Department of Agriculture partially hydrolyzed  hemicellulosic and amorphous cellulose in cellulosic materials via acid hydrolysis to obtain a crystalline cellulose solids consisting of  nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulosic solid residues (CSRs).  The nanocrystals and nanofibrils are formed by mechanical shear. 

Methods for integrating the production of cellulose nanofibrils with the production of cellulose nanocrystals


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(RDC 6/5/2012)


Roger D. Corneliussen

Maro Polymer Links
Tel: 610 363 9920
Fax: 610 363 9921


Copyright 2013 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
No part of this transmission is to be duplicated in any manner or forwarded by electronic mail without the express written permission of Roger D. Corneliussen

* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 2/13/2013.